Typically, custom cabinetry surrounding the fireplace is possible when the fireplace juts out into the room.
But that doesn't mean you can't create a similar look if your fireplace is flush with your walls. Here are some great examples from Houzz and Pintrest:
This is a clean, simple, and most of all, timeless look.
This one caught my eye because of the way they tied in the hearth with the built in cabinetry and used the furniture base molding to finish off the entire facade.
For a classic, traditional look, panel above the fireplace. It's the perfect balance of book/accessory space and display space.
This example shows how the homeowner left the flush hearth and added the built in cabinetry without disturbing the flow of the fire box and hearth.
Enjoy and be inspired to tackle some custom built ins for your own home!